Skin repair is an essential function to ensure it remains functional as well as good in appearance. We all know that skin has an aesthetic purpose, but it also protects us from environmental damage.
Therefore, understanding the skin repair function may help in triggering fibroblasts and collagen regeneration. Due to several factors, the cellular skin repair functions may lose their ability and slow down. Thanks to the advancement in science, we have therapies such as microcurrent, radiofrequency, and LED to generate collagen and skin healing.
Keep reading to learn about the microcurrent use for cellular skin repair and dermal fibroblast activity.
Importance of Skin Health in Aging
Human skin is the body's largest organ, and it has a crucial role in protecting your overall health. It serves as a barrier that prevents body fluids from escaping and keeps harmful microorganisms at bay. Without this protective layer, we would be susceptible to infections and dehydration.
Human skin has special nerve endings that allow it to sense external stimuli like temperature, pain, and touch. These sensations are essential for day-to-day life, preventing damage and dehydration.
Skin health is crucial as aging changes happen naturally and are inevitable. The health of skin before aging sets in and decides the impact of wrinkles and other effects. This is why some people age differently than others, depending on lifestyle and genetics.
Various factors, including genetics, nutrition, and environmental factors, influence skin changes. However, the most significant factor is sun exposure. Areas of the body exposed to the sun tend to show more aging-related changes.
Furthermore, epidermal changes occur with age. The outer layer of the skin thins, while the number of cell layers remains the same. Pigment-containing cells (melanocytes) decrease, and the remaining melanocytes increase in size. This may lead to thinner, paler, and translucent skin, along with the appearance of age spots or "liver spots" in sun-exposed areas.
How do wrinkles occur on the skin due to dermal changes?
Changes in the connective tissue decrease the skin's strength and elasticity, especially in sun-exposed areas, resulting in a wrinkly appearance. This occurs due to depleting collagen. In addition, blood vessels in the dermis get more fragile, causing bruising and bleeding under the skin.
The skin may also appear dry as the sebaceous glands produce less oil, causing dryness and itchiness. Some people may get skin growths such as skin tags, warts, rough patches, and actinic keratosis due to aging. These may occur both on the face and body.
Effect of Constant Changes
As the skin ages, it is more fragile and thinner, making it more susceptible to injury. The protective fat layer decreases, and there may be a decreased ability to sense touch, pressure, and temperature changes.
Skin injuries like tears, bruises, and pressure ulcers become more common. Aging skin also heals more slowly, making it more vulnerable to infections and complications.
Maintaining healthy skin is essential because it safeguards your body from various threats, ensuring your bones, muscles, and internal organs remain free from harm.
Taking care of your skin is essential for overall well-being. Practicing good skin care, including proper cleaning and protection, can help prevent many skin issues and maintain your skin's health and appearance. This proactive approach ensures that your skin continues to serve its vital protective functions effectively.
Factors Affecting Skin Health
- Lack of good nutrition may cause skin damage from within.
- Sun damage and exposure to UV rays cause the collagen and skin DNA to break.
- The skin may also suffer due to weather conditions and environmental pollution.
- Age, gender, and ethnicity play a role in skin aging and health.
- Lack of sleep may often cause dehydrated and wrinkled skin.
- Hormonal imbalance or certain skin diseases are responsible for red or dull skin.
- Not taking care of the skin may lead to premature aging signs and health issues.
How Does the Skin Repair at the Cellular Level?
Human skin cells have a natural phenomenon of regeneration, repair, and rejuvenation. Each day, new cells replace the old ones so that the skin remains in good shape. The cellular changes include dermis layer regeneration, fibroblast activity, and collagen protein formation,
The skin at the cellular level is constantly shedding to reveal the newly grown skin cells underneath. This process helps the skin to fight mild sun damage, fade scars, and heal acne and blemishes. The new cells that are made under the lower layer of the dermis take about four weeks to come out and reveal new skin. Visibly, you may see tiny flakes on the skin or lightening of the blemishes.
The subset of skin stem cells and autologous dermal fibroblasts are able to self-renew and regenerate into new cells. This helps in everyday skin repair. Many genes for cell proliferation and fibroblast activity come into play during the skin repair process. It may be a slow process as each cell is working towards healing and rejuvenation.
However, the skin's integrity and function may reduce as we age and go through different damaging environments outside. This is when the skin develops fine lines, mild wrinkles, and age spots. Sagginess may also accompany these aging symptoms, further affecting skin health.
The need for skin repair
As we know, the skin serves as a protective organ while also maintaining aesthetic purposes. The constant exposure of the skin to outside and internal factors requires the skin to stay on alert to perform functions, including proliferation, migration, hemostasis, inflammation, and remodeling.
The regenerating stem cells and autologous dermal fibroblast
Understanding Dermal Fibroblasts
Dermal fibroblasts are the cells that are present inside the dermis layer of the skin. They are responsible for creating connective tissue for normal function and wound healing. Hence, fibroblasts help in maintaining skin health.
Moreover, fibroblasts generate collagen protein, which is a structural connective tissue for the skin. These help in healing the skin that may have been damaged due to free radicals, UV radiation, and genetics.
The 4 wound-healing phases, hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling, are all critical alongside fibroblast activity. When the skin needs repair, the fibroblast comes into play to proliferate. This helps the skin create extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins.
These ECM proteins arrange and scaffold to migrate the cells inflammatory cell migration and granulation tissue generation, providing a way for re-epithelialization by keratinocytes. Furthermore, during proliferation, fibroblasts differentiate into myofibroblasts to heal the skin.
As the cellular density decreases, the dermal fibroblasts begin to produce type I collagen. This adds plasticity to the skin structure. For example, the skin's vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), fibroblast factor, and hepatocyte growth factor(HGF) promote wound healing. All these complex features promote growth factor stimulation and cell-matrix interactions.
These complex interactions in the wound area work in complete conjugation with fibroblasts as mediators of wound healing.
Microcurrent Impact on Fibroblast Activity
As we discussed earlier, fibroblast cells need to proliferate and migrate for skin healing. Several studies have been done to learn about the microcurrent effect on fibroblast activity in the skin. More activity signals healing and healthy skin. In a new study, human cells were cultivated in six different plates. Varying densities were used, including 5×104, 1×105, 3×105 and 5×105 cells.
Electric current was applied in two methods with indirect and direct current inside the plates. Different current streams of 60µA, 100µA, 500µA and 900µA were used once a day for 3 minutes. This was ample time to evaluate the cell proliferation.
Method of flow cytometry was used to see the inflammatory markers in the cell. There was an increase in cell viability during all current intensities. As a conclusion of the study, microcurrent increased cell proliferation, fibroblast activity, and skin rejuvenation during inflammation of the skin.
Another impact of microcurrent on the skin is how it helps in wound healing as it mimics the bioelectrical current that is generated in the body. In a recent study, microcurrent stimulation with electrotherapy was used to understand the healing process.
After the application of microcurrent, there was a rise in the expression of ERK 1/2- or p38-dependent for cell proliferation and migration. The application of microcurrent was able to secrete transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) in fibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells.
Besides, with the help of transcriptomic analysis, microcurrents were discovered to enhance the transcriptional activation of genes implicated in Hedgehog, TGF-β1, and MAPK signaling pathways. All of these are essential for fibroblast activity and dermal repair. Several of the signal transductions, MAPK's phosphorylation, and the transcriptional activation of specific genes are involved in the healing process.
At-Home Microcurrent Options
Microcurrent therapy is available in spas and aesthetician clinics. However, getting multiple sessions professionally may blow your bank account and take a lot of time. The solution is investing in a premium professional-grade microcurrent tool.
We recommend using the EvenSkyn Phoenix Face Lifting Microcurrent Bar. This is an innovative tool that combines the benefits of microcurrent technology with the soothing massage action of four precisely positioned rollers. These rollers are made using alloy metal placed at a 115-degree angle, ensuring optimal skin contact and facilitating a deep kneading action. Solar and artificial lights power the wand; you do not need to charge it or plug it.
When charged, it generates a mild yet effective current of 15 uA. With this gentle massage, you may notice enhanced blood circulation and improved skin texture and firmness. Moreover, it may also improve the appearance of saggy skin and puffiness.
As you incorporate microcurrent massager into your skincare regimen, you may witness transformative results. Overall, the skin may appear more even, contoured, and noticeably firmer, reflecting a rejuvenated radiance.
Cellular repair of the skin ensures elasticity, structure, and restoration of aesthetic and functional properties. Skin health and repair are essential to prevent long-term damage and early-onset wrinkles. With the help of autologous dermal fibroblast activity, more mitochondria activity, and collagen regeneration, the skin can retain its integrity.
Microcurrent therapy has been studied to ensure skin rejuvenation when used continuously. It works in accordance with the body's healing bioelectric signals to generate dermal fibroblasts. You may use microcurrent in tandem with other therapies to get the best results.
- Fish RM, Geddes LA. "Conduction of electrical current to and through the human body: a review." Eplasty. 2009 Oct
- Konstantinou E, Zagoriti Z, Pyriochou A, Poulas K. “Microcurrent Stimulation Triggers MAPK Signaling and TGF-β1 Release in Fibroblast and Osteoblast-Like Cell Lines.” Cells. 2020 Aug
- Bravo MP, Soares GP, Daniele de Oliveira P, Szezerbaty SK, Frederico RCP, Maia LP. "Microcurrent stimulates cell proliferation and modulates cytokine release in fibroblast cells." J Wound Care. 2021 Sep
- Clatici VG, Racoceanu D, Dalle C, Voicu C, Tomas-Aragones L, Marron SE, Wollina U, Fica S. "Perceived Age and Life Style. The Specific Contributions of Seven Factors Involved in Health and Beauty." Maedica (Bucur). 2017 Sep
- Flament F, Bazin R, Laquieze S, Rubert V, Simonpietri E, Piot B. "Effect of the sun on visible clinical signs of aging in Caucasian skin." Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol. 2013 Sep
- Mehrabani D, Manafi N. "RoleRole of cultured skin fibroblasts in aesthetic and plastic surgery. World J Plast Surg." 2013 Jan